Sunday, April 30, 2017

To bring change, reinforce trust amongst the employees

Below is a fictionalized case study that presents dilemma faced in real organizations. And written by me is the recommended solution to the problem. This has been published in Business Manager Magazine April 2017 edition.

Case Study- Change For better but how?

1991 ushered in a new era for Sea Side, the email order retailing agent. The company with a turnover of over a billion rupees was growing faster than ever before and was no longer the small, home-grown catalogue store. Located in south Kolkata, its 5,000 employees adhered to its culture and its management practices as well as the philosophy of its founder and chairman, Shantanu Das, “Take care of your people, take care of your customer, and the rest will take care of itself.” In 1991, Das decided that the company needed to apply modern management practices to keep up with its growing size and complexity.

The first step was the recruitment of a new executive vice president from competitor Mountain View, Subodh Marwah to lead the changes. Marwah quickly made numerous changes to modernize the management systems and processes  including team-based management,  training programs for trainees at all levels, a new multi-rater evaluation system in which managers were rated by peers and subordinates as well as their supervisors  and the use of numerous consultants to provide advice. The company reworked on its mission to provide excellent products and services and to turn every customer into a friend. In addition, the company entered into a new international venture and a new business segment each year, resulting in solid businesses in the UK, Japan and Germany. Marwah was promoted as the chief executive officer in 1993. In the continuation of the modernization efforts, he hired seven new vice presidents, including Ankit Verma as the new vice president of human resources to oversee all the changes in the employee arena. In the first two years, the changes seemed to be working as the company added 100 million rupees to its revenues and posted record profits.

However, all was not as rosy as the profit picture seemed to show. In spite of the many programs aimed at employee welfare, training and team building, many employees complained of always having to meet production and sales targets. The new employee performance evaluation system resulted in numerical rating which seemed to depersonalize relationships. No matter how many pieces she monogrammed per day, one employee felt that her work was never appreciated. Other employees complained of too many meetings necessitated by the reorganization and the cross-functional teams. One team of catalogue artists, buyers, and copywriters needed numerous meetings each week to coordinate their activities. A quality assurance manager complained that his work week had increased from 40 to 55 hours and that the meetings were taking time away from his real job. Many employees complained that they did not need to go to training programs to learn how to take care of customers and communicate when they had been doing that all along.

The doubts grew until late 1994, when the board led by Das decided that the new management was moving the company too far too fast and moving far away from the basic philosophies that made the company successful. On 2 December 1994  Das and the Vice Chairman Nikhil Rao asked for Marwah’s resignation and fired Verma citing lack of confidence in the direction the company was heading under the present management and the need to return to the company’s basic philosophy.

Mr. Das then chose 34-year-old Vikash Sen as the Chief executive officer to steer the company. Sen and 11-year veteran of Sea Side (his entire working career), immediately started the about-face by dismantling most of the terms, reorganizing the others and returning to focus on what the company excelled at previously-top-quality classic clothes and excellent customer service. Three other executives left the company shortly after Sen’s appointment.

Shortly after his takeover, however, paper prices doubled, postal rates increased, and the demand for clothing dropped sharply and profits for the third-quarter dropped by 60% as the year ended, overall profits were down to 30.6 million rupees on barely Rs 1 billion in sales and Sen had to cancel a mail order to save money. Rather than cutting quality and laying off people, Sen spent even more on increasing quality and employees benefit, such as adoption assistance and mental health referrals. His philosophy was that customers still demand quality products and those employees who feel squeezed by the company will not provide good customer service. Early results were positive, with the company’s first-quarter producing profits three times as those produced the previous year.

Critics of Mr. Sen’s return to basic philosophy argue that the modernization attempts were necessary to position the company for global competition and faster reaction to competition in several of its catalogue lines. Its return to growth occurred primarily in acquisition and new special catalogue lines and not in the main catalogue for which it was so famous. Mr. Sen has put further acquisition and global expansion on hold as he concentrates on the core businesses. Employees say that they have fewer meetings and more time to do their work.

Case Analysis - To bring change, reinforce trust amongst the employees
Questions for discussions and solutions

1. How would you characterize the two sets of changes made at Sea? Which set of change is really modernization?

The first change process initiated by Executive VP Subodh Marwah should be perceived as modernization. He made numerous changes to modernize the management systems and processes through a slew of measures including reworking on company’s mission statement, new international ventures and markets. He even recruited a new team to give him new ideas and perspectives to support the growth plans. All of this showed in the results as the company added 100 million rupees to it’s revenues and posted record profits. 

However it seems that the employees weren’t able to keep pace with the rapid growth rate of Sea Side. Obviously when the company is undergoing change and transformation and focus is on growth and results, performance measures and accountability will be in place. There will be targets to meet. It seems that the employees were not prepared for this rapid change management process that was happening and could not keep up pace with it. This resulted into them being unhappy with the current scenario at work and thus disengaged. They started complaining like increase in work hours, unproductive meetings, lack of appreciation at work, etc…

The board led by Shantanu Das saw that the company was moving away from it’s core philosophy of taking care of it’s employees and customers. So they asked Subodh Marwah to resign and fired       VP – HR Verma citing lack of confidence in the direction the company was heading and need to return to company’s basic philosophy.

The Board hired a new chief executive Vikash Sen who immediately began dismantling and               reorganizing most of what the previous team had done and focusing on past excellence history of the company i.e. quality classic clothes and excellence in customer service. However much to his and company’s dismay, things did not work out as planned as raw material and production costs increased and there was seen drop in profits. The company had to cancel a mail order to save money. Sen was seen even spending more on increasing quality and employee benefits even though business performance was dismal. Eventually Sen had to put further acquisition and global expansion on hold.

It seems that there was no planned strategy in place by Sen. He was just following the mandate given to him by the board of returning to the company's basic philosophy. It is fine that one should stick to it's core value or philosophy of what it is good at but this should be regularly revisited in tune with the changing internal & external business environment or context or issues. And based on review results, can then decide to continue doing as usual or fine tune or modify where necessary. One cannot keep on doing the same things repeatedly and expect to grow. There needs to be change however it should be in a planned and systemic manner and it should be given time. Don't expect immediate results. Change takes time.

2. How did the change processes differ?

The first change process initiated by Marwah failed to understand properly the needs and expectations of important stakeholder groups like the Board headed by Das and key employee concerns. If that were in place as a preventive action measure in terms of what is likely to go wrong if not addressed or fulfilled, then the resultant reactive measures that occurred later could have been nullified or reduced to some extent. Example – employee grievance like increase in number of working hours or meetings, unhappiness with the performance rating system, board unhappy with new functioning style or pace at which rapid transformation was taking place, etc....

Also it needs to be pondered as to whether the leaders understood as to what is expected of them as leaders of organizational change and making sure that their actions and words support the change     management initiative.

The next round of change process set off by Sen was typical that of a new person in helm of affairs would do things his way or follow instructions of his boss just because the earlier person failed to live up to expectations and causes disarray in the organization. He went about dismantling, reorganizing things set in motion by his predecessors and bringing in his own viewpoints which he felt will bring in the desired results that the company wanted in first place itself. Sen should have instead used the     opportunity given to him firstly to realise as to what exactly went wrong, there should have been       learnings from past wrongs or mistakes and that should have been utilised as an opportunity to set things right the next time around. There should have been organizational learning in place especially after a disastrous first attempt that failed badly.

3. How do you think employees will view future attempts to implement change at Sea Side?

Employees will think that continuous change is not important. It will not be taken seriously. Employees will think that all this will keep on happening at top level. We just keep on continuing with our daily routine work as usual. This also implies that any major announcement by the top leadership at Sea Side will not be viewed in the usual serious manner as it should have perceived to be. Because employees cannot see continuity in what is  being said and what is happening in reality or in actual practice. 

An organization's success depends increasingly on an engaged workforce that benefits from meaningful work, clear organizational direction, and performance accountability and that has a safe, trusting and cooperative environment. By asking the CEO to resign and firing VP HR citing lack of confidence in direction in which the company was headed, employees down the line will begin to ponder as to what exactly is happening in the organization. Where is it headed? What is its future? Do they also have a safe and secure future career in the organization or should they also be looking at other opportunities. The rumblings at the top level will undoubtedly have a cascading effect down the line as is seen by three other executives also leaving shortly. 

All in all the employees will not view seriously the change management attempts at Sea unless it is leadership top driven and there is stability and continuity in the initiatives. Also everyone's views must be taken into account and there must be involvement of all stakeholders concerned. 

Sunday, January 1, 2017

Communicate The Importance of Safety

Below is a fictionalized case study that presents dilemma faced in real organizations. And written by me is the recommended solution to the problem. This has been published in Business Manager Magazine October 2016 edition.

Case Study

Aravind Engineering Company is one of the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprises in India. It is engaged in the production of heavy electrical equipment like heavy boilers, and power generation and transmission equipment. This company is well known for its high quality products and it exports a significant portion of its production. The workforce strength of this company is 12,500, of which nearly 60 per cent of the employees are in the age group of 40 and above. The company has a strong union presence as nearly 80 per cent of its workforce is unionized. The HR department of the company is headed by Mr Mithun, a post graduate in HR with a law degree. This company has an appreciable HR policy that offers the best compensation packages for the employees. It also offers adequate training and development and career opportunities to its workforce. 

However, the only sore point among the otherwise excellent HR practices of this company is the slightly high level of industrial accidents occurring in the factory premises. The company has reported an average injury and illness rate of 6.2 per 100 employees, while the industry average remains at 4.8. Based on this criterion, the safety management policy of the company is deemed to be inadequate and ineffective. Obviously, the management wants the HR department to adopt rigorous safety practices to scale down the injury and illness rate to a level that is less than the industry average in a cost-effective manner. 

Although the HR department is more than willing to introduce a comprehensive safety regulation by introducing new safety devices, apparatus and procedure, it faces several problems. The unionized employees are bent on opposing the new safety provisions for several reasons. In fact, the earlier safety initiatives by the HR department failed miserably due to the noncooperation of the employees and their trade unions. The unions feel that any compliance with the new safety regulations would force them to spend 10 minutes extra time. These employees are not prepared to spend any extra time for safety matters. They also feel that the handling of safety devices could slow down their productivity and performance, which, in turn, could affect their earning capacity. The traditional work culture of this company, which accords top priority to productivity over safety, is also making matters difficult for the HR department to introduce changes in the safety regulation. The safety training programmes conducted by the HR department in the past did not serve any purpose as the employees continued to exhibit an intransigent attitude towards safety regulations and flouted safety norms. Ironically, the employees are satisfied with the existing norms and apparatus and do not mind the injury rate and record of the company.

Quite understandably, the HR manager is perplexed over the strange situation. He is at a loss to know what needs to be done in the future to convince the employees, especially the union members, to accept the additional safety features. With the deadline, fixed by the management, for introducing the revised safety regulation fast approaching, the HR manager is in a real tight spot.

Case Analysis

1. How do you assess the safety problems of Aravind Engineering?

The safety problems of Aravind Engineering can be summarized as follows; 

a) The company has a strong union presence as nearly 80 percent of its workforce is unionised. Hence incase the management of the company wants to bring in some changes w.r.t. Labour, chances are that it will face strong resistance from the union who constitute more than ¾th of the workforce. Hence they have a strong collective bargaining power incases wherein they wish to oppose the management's decision. It is also seen in current context in the form of resistance by them when the HR department wishes to introduces new safety measures. 

b) It also seems that there is an indifference in attitude exhibited by the unionized employees who are opposed to changes for their betterment. They are exhibiting a closed mindset by saying that new safety regulations would force them to spend 10 minutes extra at work for which they are not prepared at any cost. They feel that by way of handling of new safety devices could slow down their productivity and performance which in turn would affect their earnings. Giving priority to daily earnings / wages over safety which is for long term work benefit and longetivity shows lackdaisal attitude on part of the unionized employees.

c) It also does not help that the traditional work culture at Araving Engineering Company driven by the Leadership accords top priority to productivity over safety that makes matters difficult for the HR department to introduce changes in the safety regulation. The HR department can only do as much as it is empowered to do. If the focus of the company management is on revenue and production at any cost, then it will override any change management initiative that the HR department will introduce as the employees are only concerned about production and revenue and growth. It also does not help that Aravind Engineering is a market leader in production of heavy electrical equipment and as such all employees are working in their comfort zone knowing that they are currently unchallenged and hence why bother with changes and new initiatives when things are working well.

d) Another example of this indifferent attitude exhibited by the unionized employees towards introduction of new safety measures for their betterment is the fact that the company has reported an average injury and illness rate of 6.2 per 100 employees whereas the industry average is 4.8. This data should set the alarm bells ringing since the company is lagging behind in meeting the industry norms for safety. In order to overcome this, the HR department conducted various safety training programmes. However they were not effective as the employees continued to exhibit an intransugent attitude towards safety regulations and flouted safety norms. The employees showed satisfaction with the existing norms and apparatus and did not mind the injury rate and record of the company.

2. Who should be held accountable for the present state of affairs?

Ultimately, it should be the Leadership or Management who are ultimately responsible for the outcome of the introduction of new safety measures and in convincing the employees at Aravind Engineering, especially the union members, to accept the additional safety measures. If things don't work out as expected, it's not the responsibility of the HR Manager or anybody else. All roads lead back to Management of Aravind Engineering. They have to take an active role. 

Management must ensure that these things happen. This can be done by reviewing the outcomes with HR and by way of assistance in resolving hinderances faced. It cannot be just delegated to HR and make them responsible and accountable.
Management should communicate to all it's employees as to how important safety is for the company and why it's critical for them to adhere to the regulations required. This communication requirement can only be fulfilled by them. This cannot be delegated. Management by communicating the importance of safety directly are endeavoring in giving the message that the actions of HR are real and that they believe it and all others involved should also believe in it too. This may also make the work of HR easier when implementing the changes because employees will then feel more motivated and will participate more actively. Buy-in will be ensured from the employees.

3. Had you been the HR Manager, how would you have handled the situation?

The HR Manager could have handled the situation better by engaging in more dialogue with them. A careful assessment of their concerns, their particular issues could have been done and solutions on it provided in consultation with them. The HR Manager prior to implementing the changes should walk everyone through the proposed changes in safety, why they are being implemented and why it is safe. The HR Manager by drawing upon past implementation experience of such measures and likely reactions of the employees could have anticipated the objections the employees will have this time around and thus be prepared to address them by validating their concerns and emphasizing the benefits of change. By planning, the HR Manager would have been better equipped to address objections head on.

By enlisting active support of the Management of Aravind Engineering as stated above and thus driving home the message that the company is serious about the changes to be introduced in the way safety norms and regulations are currently practiced and it's not just another routine act of HR that can be ignored assuming that things will remain the same.

Since communicating the importance of safety is the key – how  it is currently practised and what needs to change, visual posters communicating the importance of safety may be displayed across the company at various locations. This will create safety awareness amongst all levels of employees and thus reinforce the message.

Rewards and Recognition Programmes can be introduced for best practices in following safety exhibited by the employees. Employees who show adherence to the new safety measures may be recognised and rewarded by the Management. This may serve as a motivation and incentive for other employees to also adopt the changes and thus vie for the R&R.

Employees who have switched over to the new safety norms, their services can be enlisted, to speak to others in their group about the importance of safety and how by switching over to the new safety measures has benefitted them. Once the employees hear from one of their own about the benefits, they may be more inclined and willing. Resistance to change will be less.

Aravind Engineering can also look at applying for Safety honors or awards in the industry like 'British Safety Council Award' or 'Sword of Honor Award'. By applying for the award, the company will be competing against others who have also applied and will thus come to know as to where it stands in the industry vis a vis the best safety practices followed. Should Araving Engineering were to win an award, it will get recognition in the industry. The award won would also serve to boost the morale of the employees and incentivise them to perform better and also maintain the safety standards for which the award is bestowed to the company.

Sunday, April 10, 2016

Put formal HR function in place and strengthen it

Below is a fictionalized case study that presents dilemma faced in real organizations. And written by me is the recommended solution to the problem. This has been published in Business Manager Magazine April 2016 edition.

Akshay Sales Corporation is a partnership firm established in the year 1994 at Surat, Gujarat. The founder and the CEO of this firm is Mr Amar Patel. This firm is the distributor, wholesaler and supplier of all types of wood working, laminate pressing, shoes PU adhesive and SR rubber adhesive for foam and flooring and mattress. Akshay is one of the top five performers in this type of business out of about 50 Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in its region of operations. Being an experienced firm it also enjoys good competitive edge over others in business. The average turnover of this partnership firm is Rs. 24 crores whereas the strength of its workforce is 348 employees including clerical supervisory and managerial categories.

Akshay is well known for achieving customer satisfaction, ensuring timely delivery, innovating new designs, and honoring commitment to buyers. However, the critical and thorny issue of this firm is the talent management and retention. The human resource management system of Akshay is very much traditional and similar to any typical Indian SME. This firm does not have a specific manager or officer with HR responsibility. Most basic HRM functions such as recruitment and salary fixation are done by the line managers either by themselves or in consultation with the CEO of the firm. In recruitment it seeks professional competencies among the potential candidates and also offers competitive pay packages. In most cases the promotion is given to the employees based on the assessment and recommendation of the line managers.

As regards the talent management, the major problem for Akshay is in retaining the talented people with the firm for longer duration. This problem persists despite the abundant availability of skilled people in labour market. Akshay offers financial incentives to employees at highly competitive rates as a retention device but without much success. The firm has no record of conducting any form of formal skill training for its employees. This is because the CEO of the firm Mr. Amar Patel strongly believes that employee training can only worsen the problem of talent retention as the well-trained employee is more likely to leave the firm-seeking greener pastures. Consequently, this firm ruled out training as a solution to the problem of high attrition. In Akshay, the attrition related issues remain untamed and continue to affect the plans and future growth prospects of the firm. During temporary recession, it was decided lay off the people to lessen the wages cost resulting in to draining out the talent people. Remained only were average performers. After recovering from recession, when managers reached out to sacked people offer them to rejoin, it came out as a shocking surprise to the management that most of them refused to rejoin on some pretext or the other. Now the problem before the managers and CEO is to employ not only the good people but also to retain them. The organisation suffered business as it started getting complaints about poor logistics and quality of products. In all likelihood, this issue may worsen in coming times as the competitors may adopt aggressive style with using their ex-workers knowledge about the important business information of Akshay Sales corporation. CEO has asked the managers to come forward with a blue print to address the problem.

Questions for discussions
  1. What is your assessment of the whole situation in Akshay Sales Corporation from HR perspective?
  2. According to you what specific steps are to be taken by Akshay to tackle the problem of rising attrition rate?
  3. What should be long-term strategy of this firm in terms of HR policy, procedure, and practice?

Established in 1994 in Surat Gujarat, Akshay Sales Corporation, a partnership firm headed by Amar Patel is a leading top 5 distributor, wholesaler and supplier of all types of wood working, laminate pressing, shoes PU adhesive and SR rubber adhesive for foam and flooring and mattress in the SME Segment. The company being well established & experienced in its line of business enjoyed a market competitive edge. It was well known for achieving customer satisfaction, ensuring timely delivery, innovating new designs and honoring commitment to buyers. The company clocked a turnover of 24 crores and had a workforce strength of 348 employees across all cadres.
Akshay Sales Corporation was doing very well as far as its business was concerned however like all traditionally ownership managed companies, it was facing the challenge of managing attrition. The company did not believe in having a full time professional HR team. The HR functions like recruitment, salary, promotion, etc…were managed by the functional manager’s themselves in consultation with the CEO. Hence there was never a full-time HR person looking into all HR functions and issues given that the company had 348 employees but the functional manager’s themselves managing it as additional responsibility whenever it came up. This was the first HR issue facing the company and probably the root cause.
Secondly promotion was based on assessment and recommendation by the managers to the CEO. Hence the company lacked a formal employee evaluation, feedback and promotion methodology. Chances of bias coming in as a consequence were very high and disgruntled employees leaving the company simply because of them being overlooked for promotion were there. This was another issue facing the company in talent management & retention.

Thirdly there was no formal training plan on upgrading the skills & competencies of the workforce in line with the changing dynamic business environment. The CEO believed that by training it’s employees, they would seek better prospects. Mr. Patel should have thought for himself and for his company as to what is suited to his buiness strategy better – having a well trained employee and performing or rather having an employee who is not performing and not trained and as a result is stuck in the same job in the same company. There is absence of an strategy or lack of direction as far as employee skills up gradation and training goes. 

Lastly when there was slowdown in business, the company decided to reduce its employee strength to lessen the cost of wages on its balance sheet. As a result, talented employees left the company and only average performers remained. When the recession tide was over, the company reached out those sacked employees and offered them to rejoin which they vehemently refused. As a result, the company’s business suffered and it started getting complaints about poor logistics and quality of it’s products and services. There were chances that the sacked employees would join other competing firms and that they would use their knowledge about the important business information of Akshay Sales corporation thereby threating it’s immediate business prospects and long term sustainability. Clearly this act states lack of long term HR vision of the company, about where it wants to be and where it wants to go as far as its employees are concerned. All these actions are short-term minded. There is no long term Focus on the Future.

In any industry, employees are to be treated as assets of an organization and not as costs. Also the HR function should be on par with the business functions of the company and not treated merely as side function doing only recruitment & salary.

The following few steps should be taken by Akshay Sales Corporation immediately to tackle the problem of rising attrition rate and other HR related issues plaguing it.
Firstly appoint an experienced, professional and full time HR Head who is preferably from the same industry background as Akshay Sales Corporation so that HR function is in tune with the business activities, it’s requirements and can fully support it.

Secondly the HR Head should be empowered to take decisions for betterment of the company. HR should be allowed to function independently reporting directly to the CEO. By allowing HR to function independently as if it were a business department itself there would be reduced chances of biasness in its activities and as a consequence there would be healthy work environment in the company.

Third introduce Compensation, Recognition, and Rewards / Incentives to retain it’s existing employees as well as to recruit and hire new talent. These should be influenced purely by performance measures and for generating business growth ideas and reinforcing them on the job. By introducing such Rewards & Recognition schemes, the employees will get a sense of belonging to the company and will feel valued. Thus they will get more engaged with the company which is not so in current scenario and an engaged employee will perform more and contribute more to the growth and development of the company. As an employee grows, the company also grows and the same hold true in reverse.

Lastly but the not least, Develop training plans based on employee and manager input. There should be clear linkages between the business strategic objectives of Akshay and education and training. Skills to be developed based on business demands and employee needs.

The long term strategy for Akshay Sales Corporation in terms of its HR Policy, Procedure and Practice should be to invest in their employees to ensure they have the skills for today and to do what is necessary to succeed in the future. The CEO should aim towards building a work climate that addresses the needs of its employees. Recruitment and training are tools to enhance the work climate. Employees should be incentivised such as bonuses or other rewards, for developing additional career-enhancing skills. Provide for employee support and benefits depending on their different needs like health care, education (both work and non-work related), maternity, paternity and family – illness leave, etc…Make available special activities and services for the employees.

Develop formal career plans for each employee. Evaluate progress against the plans and make adjustments where necessary to ensure that they remain relevant. Companies that provide career development opportunities are four times less likely to lose talent in the next year than companies that do not. 

Sunday, March 27, 2016

Why People Leave?

Below is a fictionalized case study that presents dilemma faced in real organizations. And written by me is the recommended solution to the problem. This has been published in Business Manager Magazine March 2016 edition. 

Arvind Suiting’s a global textile company is based in India. The company has presence in more than 35 countries. It has succeeded in getting a decent share in an increasingly competitive global market. It has employed more than 5,800 employees. This company always views its employees as its strength and as the secret of its success. It has got several HR practices oriented towards employee satisfaction and motivation. The uniqueness of the HR practices of this company are (i) its accent on extensive training programme for its employees during their probationary period of two years and (ii) its compensation packages, which are excellent for the industry. The HR department of the company is managed by Mr Ravi Varma, a post graduate in Human Resource Management.

However, the company has been plagued by quite a few HR-related problems in the recent past. One of them is the high rate of attrition witnessed by the company, especially among the employees promoted to the higher position in the organization. Some other recently promoted employees were asking for reversals to their original position. Apparently, the company was perplexed by the developments as the employee leaving the organization were indeed performing activities critical to the organization. The company took the matter seriously and was determined to identify its reason. It appointed a team of HR experts to look into the issue and suggest necessary remedial measures.

The team approached all the employees who were leaving the organization and conducted an exit interview to ascertain the reason for their quitting the firm. It also interviewed the employees who applied for reversals to their previous positions. Similarly, it interviewed all the existing employees in that cadre as on that date. Finally, it went a step ahead and contacted the employees who had already left the company in the recent past and elicited their views on the different aspects of employment and the reason for leaving.

Shockingly, almost all the employees spoke negatively about their job. They also informed the team about the presence of an anomaly in authority, responsibility and accountability. A number of them perceived a lack of fit between the level of authority and responsibility. They opined that the job carried too huge a responsibility but provided little authority for the job holder. They also revealed that the lack of demarcation of job authority of different employees often led to misunderstanding and quarrels with their subordinates. Several employees felt that the compensation package was not commensurate with the difficulty and accountability of the job. Based on its interviews with the present and former employees, the team of HR experts prepared a report and presented it to the top management. The report squarely blamed the job analysis report (that had been made earlier) and the resultant HR practices as responsible for the present situation. It held the job analysis report as poorly investigated and drafted. The HR manager was asked to respond to the report and present his own report about the situation. In his report, the HR manager cited the lack of cooperation of the employees for job analysis exercise as the reason for inaccuracies in the job analysis report. However, he strongly defended the methods and techniques adopted in the job analysis process.

Finally, the company decided to undertake a fresh job analysis for all job titles and integrate the information with the HR practices by revising these practices thoroughly. An external HR consultancy agency with relevant expertise in job analysis was hired this time to prepare the job analysis report even though it charged a high fee.

Question for Discussions:
  1. How do you view the developments in Aravind Suitings from your perspective?
  2. Do you agree with the findings of the team of HR professionals regarding the recent spate in employee resignations and requests for reversal?
  3. What is your response to the report of the HR manager Mr. Ravi Varma blaming employees for the defective job analysis report?
  4. Do you have any alternate suggestions for controlling attrition in Aravind Suitings?

Arvind Suitings, an Indian textile company having 5800 employees & a global presence in more than 35 countries views its employees as its assets and key to business success. The objective of it’s HR practices are employee satisfaction & motivation resulting into the company having extensive training for it’s employees who are on probation and excellent compensation packages that are the best in the industry. Recently, the company is facing a challenge that of employees leaving the company especially those promoted to higher positions or employees asking for reversal to original position.  The company appointed a team of expert consultants to look into the matter and based on extensive interviews with different cadres of employees by they found ambiguity in job profile as one of the main reasons. Job responsibilities and authorities were not properly defined and the pay offered was perceived to be less as compared to the huge amount of responsibility it carried. The HR Manager Mr. Ravi Varma cited lack of co-operation of the employees when carrying out the job analysis exercise for the inaccuracies.

Employees and first-line supervisors who are closest to the work usually understand best what skills are required (and missing) to do the work effectively. Failure to obtain and use input from these employees may result in the development of inappropriate or ineffective training opportunities and it’s resultant application on the job. This is exactly what has happened at Arvind Suitings & has led to waste of its Human Resources. Although the HR Manager has cited lack of co-operation by the employees, it is HRD’s responsibility to get the work done properly and implement it effectively. Simply blaming the employees as an excuse cannot be tolerated as they have their own line functions also to look into.

Has the HR Manager Mr. Ravi Varma communicated to the employees the objective of the job analysis exercise? Has it been perceived rightly by all the employees? Incase of improper communication, employees may take it in wrong sense and start looking out for other options. If the HR Manager spoke about lack of co-operation from the employees, he must realise that it is almost impossible to get real and genuine data without the support of employees. if they are not ready to co-operate, it is a sheer wastage of time, money and human effort to conduct job analysis process. The solution is that of taking the workers in confidence and communicating to them that it is being done to solve their problems only.

Companies must look at recruiting, hiring, placing, and retaining employees who will meet skill requirements required to position it for future success. Obviously the right employee is a key factor in this. This has also not quite exactly happened at Arvind Suitings resulting into employees leaving the organization or requesting for reversal to their original function.

If the HRD had indeed a problem in carrying out this exercise effectively, has it proactively communicated it to the Management of Arvind Suitings for their support. That could have eased out matters somewhat as compared to the current situation that the company is currently facing in having it reviewed by a team of external HR consultants and then appointing an external HR consultancy agency with relevant expertise in job analysis to prepare the job analysis report.

Alternative suggestions for controlling attrition in Arvind Suiting’s, one of them could be to have self-directed or self-managed work teams throughout the organization. They should be having authority over their relevant matters because this was the current problem faced. Secondly the HRD should conduct systematic job needs analysis to ensure that skills required to perform work are routinely assessed, monitored, and maintained. Employee opinion should be regularly sought (and obtained) regarding job design and their work process management and improvement. This should be a part of yearly routine activity with frequency to be defined.
Since Arvind Suitings has oriented its HR practices towards employee satisfaction and motivation and views extensive trainings as one of the indicators, it could systematically evaluate training effectiveness on the job. Performance data to be collected on all employees at all levels to assess the impact of training. Prompt and regular feedback should be provided to teams and individuals regarding their performance. Employee satisfaction with the courses to be tracked and used to improve training content & training delivery.

Saturday, February 13, 2016

Respond Effectively to Changed Circumstances

Below is a fictionalized case study that presents dilemma faced in real organizations. And written by me is the recommended solution to the problem. This has been published in Business Manager Magazine February 2016 edition.

Case Study - Is Metrics Panacea for all HR Problems in Century Software?

Century Software is one of the leading technology based companies engaged in management consulting, technology development, and outsourcing services. This company is well known for its innovative approach towards delivering business value and its commitment to sustainability. It aims at optimized utilization of natural resources, capital, and talent. It is engaged in activities like Big Data Analytics, Operational Analytics, and Supply Chain Analytics. It has 1 25,000 employees on its roll and offices in 110 cities around the world. The net revenue of this company is Rs. 13.0 billion for fiscal year 2014. In Century Software, people management cost constitutes nearly 59% of total expenses.

The HR department of this company is headed by Mr Easwaren, one of the senior leaders in the company. However, in recent times, the CEO of the company Mr Mahendra Singh has lot of worries about the functional efficiency of HR department especially in the context of serious erosion of manpower in Big Data Analytics - one of the core departments. The high attrition rate in this department has caused consternation among the top managers. The CEO and his team is wholly aware of the fact that the HR department has taken the issue seriously and conducting exit interviews to understand the root cause of the problem.  They also regularly collect information on absenteeism and turnover. However, the irony is that the top management is not informed of outcome of such exercise in desirable and actionable form for initiating necessary action. The absence of actionable report about the HR problems of Big Data Analytics department kept the top management always in tenterhooks. This is because the good and consistent performance of this department is essential for the execution of the strategic and operational plan of the whole organization.

Of late, the top managers began to believe that HR is not supporting the strategic agenda of the company. They are now toying with the idea of changing the leadership in the HR division and also effecting radical changes in the structure of the HR department.

Questions for discussions and solutions

1) Do you agree with the opinion of the top management that HR department is not effective in handling the attrition and absenteeism problems of Big Data Analytics department?
It is to be noted that that in Century Software, a management consulting, technology development & outsourcing services company having 1,25,000 employees on its payroll, offices in 110 cities globally, the people management cost constitutes nearly 59% of its total expenses. Hence it is but natural that Top Management would be concerned about the efficiency of the HR department since a sizeable portion of its revenue vis a vis expenses goes to people management. The Top Management would be looking at optimising its cost per employee of its various business departments vis a vis the revenues generated and their contribution to the overall revenue of the company. 

In the case of Century Software, one of its core departments Big Data Analytics is facing a serious erosion of manpower and has a high attrition rate. Although this issue has been identified, serious taken note of and actionable measures like Exit Interviews undertaken to get to the root cause of the problem, still there has been no significant improvement observed in stemming the flow of people leaving the organization. Hence the Top Management who would be monitoring the situation and evaluating the results of the actions taken, it’s effectiveness would naturally be concerned. If it is being reported to them by HR Head that action is being undertaken, Top Management would be looking at results, better changes and improvement in the scheme of things to come. However that was not to be seen or evident. Hence the Top Management is bound to be opined that HR department is not effective in handling the attrition and absenteeism problems of Big Data Analytics department. 

2) According to you, what needs to be done by the HR department from HR metric perspective to tackle the situation?
The HR department in order to tackle the situation from HR metric perspective should have regular reporting to the Top Management. A frequency to be defined. The HR metrics data should be collated, analysed and reported to Top Management with their comments and action plan for the future. Since the time of Top Management is valuable, the information being reported should be that which needs their urgent attention, be short, summarized and crisp. Top Management is not interested in going through volumes of reports and data. They are more interested in the outcomes and results and how it is helping the business. The information should speak the language of the Top Management.

It may help that before deciding on reporting structure, frequency, desired reporting method, etc…inputs from the Top Management to the HR Department be given as to what exact information is being desired and in what manner. Defining, in measurable, outcome-oriented terms. Clarity on this may make things easier and that may perhaps resolve the issue of reporting in desirable and actionable form for initiating necessary action. 

The HR department at Century Software may be using numerous metrics that may be providing information as to how the HR function is performing; however there may be some metrics that may be more important than others depending on the organization’s goals and strategy. At times, it is necessary to evaluate that as well i.e. effectiveness of the metrics being deployed. It may not be a bad idea to ask the Top Management for guidance as to whether this is the information which they desire or is there anything else that is required – what metrics are most important to the organization. Clarity of communication on it may help make the road ahead easier and perhaps keep the Top Management on less tenterhooks of the HR department.

3) If you were to be a HR consultant, what will be your specific suggestions and strategy to improve the efficacy of HR department?
If I were to be a HR consultant I would first of all look at the entire HR Metrics structure itself, look at the metrics being used and information being generated out of it. Four crucial considerations that need to consider when using HR metrics include:
•What metrics are most important to the organization?
•What data needs to be gathered or tracked to calculate these metrics?
•How will the data be analysed and benchmarked?
•How will the analysis be used for action planning, development/improvement, and problem-solving?

If the metrics do not satisfy any of these crucial considerations, then it needs to be looked at as to whether it makes sense to gather so much data and report when it is not really useful. Sometimes it is prudent to have only few metrics that are in line with the business requirements of the organization as compared to having many. Too much volume of data may lead to information overload and chances are that in it one may tend to miss out on crucial details that get hidden / over sighted in tonnes of data.

Have a Dashboard. A dashboard facilitates effective monitoring at all levels and makes management of implementation and related actions easier. A good dashboard that provides measures of leading indicators to help the Top Management understand what is important to the employees, how well it is delivering on those things that are important, the reaction of its employees, and the capacity of its work processes and delivery systems. With this advance knowledge, Top Management can make better decisions about the actions needed to be successful, bring more value to the workplace, and respond effectively to changing circumstances and new opportunities.

Saturday, December 5, 2015

Feedback to Rejected Was Missing

Below is a fictionalized case study that presents dilemma faced in real organizations. And written by me is the recommended solution to the problem. This has been published in Business Manager Magazine December 2015 edition.

Case Study - The Cause of Concern in Internal Recruitment

Hirthick & Co is a popular company engaged in textile production. It has production sites in three different places. It produces high-value pure-wool, wool-blended and premium-polyester-viscose-worsted suitings. Hirthick enjoys a sizeable market share for the finest fabrics and designer wears. 
In fact, this company has a large variety of worsted suitings to cater to the needs of the assorted customers. The company has a workforce comprising 7,500 employees. The HR department is headed by Mr Uday Shankar, the General Manager (HR). The company has HR policies and practices for almost all its staffing activities.

Hirthick's promotion policy stipulated that the company adopt internal recruitment for non-managerial and entry-level managerial cadres as a first choice, whereas, for all other ranks above the entry-level managerial position, external recruitment should be the only option. The company had a smooth sailing on the manufacturing front till a few weeks ago when Mr Suresh Kulkarni, the production chief at the level of general manager, submitted his letter of resignation. He cited personal reasons for his decision to leave the company and all the efforts of the management to persuade him to take back his resignation failed. Left with no other option, the management instructed the HR department to begin the separation process for Mr Suresh Kulkarni and the recruitment process to fill the consequent vacancy.

As regards the recruitment of a new incumbent for the vacant position, the management was in favour of external sources of recruitment as per the policy and they wanted the General Manager (HR) to search widely to choose the best candidate for the job. However, Mr Uday Shankar had different ideas for the post as he wanted to fill the vacancy by providing promotion to one of the three production managers in charge of the three production units of the company. These senior production managers had been with the company for quite a long time and had nearly unblemished service records. He believed strongly that the promotional opportunities can motivate these managers and improve their morale greatly. Therefore, he made a request to the top management for exempting this job position from the general promotion policy on a trial basis. The top management agreed to the proposal reluctantly and permitted the GM (HR) to proceed with his plan to fill the post by promoting one of the production managers as GM (Production).

As per its general promotion policy, the company adopted merit as the sole criterion for choosing the best candidate for the post. The HR department, after a series of promotional selection processes and due consideration of the past performance records of the three production managers, chose one of the managers as GM (Production). However, the promoted manager happened to be the youngest of all the three managers and had the least number of years of service in the company. The top management approved the selection done by the HR department and issued the job-offer letter to the selected manager accordingly. Soon, the news of the selection spread and the unsuccessful man-agers expressed shock and disbelief as their first reaction. They could not believe that they were less efficient than the promoted manager. They expressed their displeasure to the top management and faulted the HR department for not selecting them.

The efforts of the management to convince them bore no fruits. Their performance began to decline and they showed all symptoms of leaving the organization early. In contrast, promoted manager in his capacity of GM performed brilliantly and justified his selection. Thus, the decision of Mr. Uday Shankar produced mixed results for the company.

Questions for discussions & solutions

1. Do you agree with the decision of Mr Uday Shankar in resorting to internal recruitment for the GM (Production) post?

Yes, I agree with Mr. Uday Shankar – GM HR’s decision in resorting to internal recruitment for GM (Production) post even though the company policy stated that for all ranks above entry-level managerial position, external recruitment should be the only option.

The objective of this decision by GM HR was to promote leadership from within the organization with proven capability and track record rather than bringing in an outsider. Also internal recruitment helps to fill in the void position faster as compared to external sourcing which is a time consuming and costly activity. This would also motivate the employees as they too seek career growth opportunities at some point of time and are glad to see opportunities within the organization. Internal promotion also acts as a retention tool.

Managers have a responsibility to help employees attain their job and career progression development objectives. These provide evidence to workers that they are valued by the organization and its leaders. This, in turn, enhances employee engagement, which enhances productivity.

An internally promoted employee would know the systems and processes of the organization far better and be in a position to deliver quicker, better and faster results as compared to an outsider who would obviously need time to settle down in the new profile and understand how things work in the organization before getting to the task in hand for which recruited.

2. Had you been the GM (HR), how would you have filled up the post of GM (Production)?

Had I been the GM (HR), I would have first determined the knowledge, skillsets, attributes,             nos. of years of experience required for filling up the post of GM (Production) left void by               Mr. Suresh Kulkarni. Setting clear communication rules for the internal hiring process is vital. 
This was missing in case of Hirthick & Co’s context.

An internal recruiting policy needs to be made that will specify who can apply for internal vacancies and provide full details of open position i.e. salary, benefits, time frame an employee needs to be in his or her current position before applying for new one, etc…Although the HR Department followed a promotion selection process and gave due consideration to past performance records of the three production managers whom it had shortlisted for GM (Production) vacancy, some of the questions such as these need to be considered when establishing the company’s internal recruiting policy.

Offer feedback. Always tell candidates if they weren’t selected and why. It is to be noted that this was missing in the internal hiring process for GM (Production) at Hirthick & Co. Out of the 
3 candidates shortlisted, the unsuccessful 2 were not offered feedback as to why they were not chosen. Hence when the news broke out, shock & disbelief was the first natural reaction. If there had been some form of communication, then things would have been better managed.

From the outset, make it very clear that the organization follows meritocracy. If clear expectations are set, then these type of issues have minimal negative consequences.

3. According to you, what is the solution to the problem arising out of the internal recruitment?

When a higher post is given to a deserving employee, it motivates all other employees of the organization to work hard. However in case of Hirthick & Co, it led to resentment amongst the other 2 unsuccessful candidates. They could not believe that they were less efficient than the promoted manager and vehemently expressed their displeasure to management & HR dept. Although management tried to convince them, the efforts bore no fruits and there were indications that they would leave the organization.

Outline the promoted employee’s successes within the organization so that the other two know the things they don’t have to focus on. Then, as tactfully as possible, outline the areas where they need improvement so they can position themselves for that promotion in the future. That way, they clearly understand what they need to work on.

Honesty is crucial when delivering news in regard to a promotion. Inform the two employee's who were not promoted about the decision, and then tactfully explain the reasoning behind it.

Another solution is to get them a new internal position based on merits on an immediate basis. Delay in doing so will breed further resentment amongst them and ultimately leave Hirthick & Co with the problem it’s trying to avoid anyway.

It is easier to break challenging news when there is an alternative career plan available for an employee to go. Employees who see a future in the company, an opportunity to move up in title, a more challenging role and higher compensation tend to stick around, even if there is a setback. If they know what their target is, and there is transparency, the conversation is much easier to have!

Sunday, November 1, 2015

Hiring Process Lacks Basics

Below is a fictionalized case study that presents dilemma faced in real organizations. And written by me is the recommended solution to the problem. This has been published in Business Manager Magazine November 2015 edition.

Case Study - Why Mayank did not join?

Mr. Bajaj’s day was spoiled. It was month end and all financial reports were to be sent to CEO after collecting and compiling data from different business centers. Being financial controller, he was to ensure that his people deliver as expected. It was 11 Am and till that time he did not get the clue from Rahul as what was happening. Rahul joined this organization six months back as management trainee in finance department. He was chartered Accountant. His role was to get various financial reports from different facilities, compile them, put before Mr. Bajaj, for his finishing touch and finally to be sent by Mr. Bajaj to CEO. Bajaj was checking his inbox. After the mail of Rahul having reports, next was of his resignation. 

Rahul, who was merely a "trainee" having no visibility all of a sudden became very important for Me. Bajaj. He called and counseled rahul to stay back even offered to raise his salary by Rs.10k but he did not budge. He told that he will not come from next Monday. It was Tuesday Means only six days left. 

Bajaj gave a call to Mitra, Recruitment head. The conversation held between them was: 

M- Hi Bajaj ji, How are you? 

B- Not good yaar.. That CA, rahul you gave me six months back has resigned. He will leave by Monday. These young boys don't know what they think of them…. totally irresponsible and negligent. Give me some good boy this time... You HR guys also don't put your best while recruit. This time put a condition of three year bond. We can't be left behind like this. I want the replacement by Monday. 

And the call ended. 

Mitra was perplexed. He was not sure how he will meet this dead line. He searched his data bank. Coincidently, He laid his hand on a CV of a boy mayank who recently passed his CA. Mitra asked her subordinate Ruchi to coordinate for immediate interview. She gave a call to that boy. Here is the conversation: 

R-hello, I am calling from ……. co. we have your CV. Pl. come for interview tomorrow. 

Mayank- But mam can I come day after? 

R- No... No... You have to come tomorrow only otherwise you will not get this chance. 

Mayank- Ok. Mam.

Next day mayank reached office of the company. But at reception when asked, He was unable to refer the name who called her for interview. Ruchi did not tell her name. Mayank could simply tell that he got a call from this office for the interview in finance department. Receptionist inquired from Finance whether mayank was called for interview. She could not get any clue from finance even. Mayank showed her the mobile No. from call list in mobile. Receptionist then could identify that it was Ruchi's number. She gave call to Ruchi and informed about Mayank waiting at reception. 
After some time mayank was called in.... Ruchi directed him to meet Mr. Bajaj for interview. Mayank reached to Bajaj office on next floor. He was made to sit waiting for about an hour. When called in, Bajaj asked — where is your CV? 

Mayank gave copy of his CV from his document folder which luckily he carried with him. 

Interview questions: 
B- Sit down. 
M- Thank you sir. Mayank sat on the chair. 

B- So you did your CA... All in one attempt... Good. 
M- Yes sir... 

B- You will be here as management trainee and will be responsible for MIS. Is It OK? 
M- (Kept quite) 

B-I am also CA. You will report to me directly. But you have to execute three years bond. We don't want that people come here, work for few months and leave us. 
M- (Kept quite) 

B- Your salary will be … ( Bajaj Quoted some figure) 
B- Join from Monday... take this CV, and meet Mitra... 
M- Ok sir... 

Bajaj handed over his CV back to mayank. Mayank read the comments written on his CV while getting down to the floor.. Bajaj wrote — selected. 

Mayank again went to Ruchi and gave that CV to her and asked for Mr. Mitra.

Ruchi told her to wait as he was in lunch. Mayank waited for about 45 minutes. He could make out that mitra was HR/ recruitment head. 

In the meantime mayank went to wash room. One more person entered wash room behind mayank. 

Their conversation: 
P- Have you come for interview? 
M- Yes. 

P- For which post? 
M- Don't know. I am CA. just Passed. Not aware what post will be given. 

P- Hi... I am also CA. Hopefully you are for replacement of Rahul who has just resigned. 
M- Why he has resigned? 

P- Here people come and go. I will also leave shortly. Till you get a good job, it is not bad to pass some time here. 
M- But they are asking for three year bond that too as management trainee. 

P- But nobody has so far been asked for any bond. Nor I executed. 
M- Why for me then..? 

P-Don't know. 
M- How is the company? 
P- Agar kahin job nahi mile to theek Hai... 

Both came out of the wash room. 

Mayank was called by Mitra. Their conversation: 
Mitra- Sit down mayank.. Congrats.. You are selected. 
Mayank- sir, I am told that I would be as management trainee. 

Mitra- Yes. 
Mayank—for how much period? 

Mitra—Need not to worry. We are here. You are fortunate that you got this job.
Mayank- Will I be rotated to other assignments also or will do only MIS..? 

Mitra- How do you think that MIS is lower level work to be done by CA? Is company fool appointing a CA for this work? 

Mayank- three year bond will be from very first day or after training? 
Mitra- From very first day. 

Mayank-what will be the duration of Training? 
Mitra—that will be decided after looking at your performance. 
Mayank-(Kept quite) 
Mitra asked ruchi to give him offer letter. 

Mayank was handed over the offer letter asking him to join by Monday. Mitra gave a call to Bajaj and confirmed that Mayank will be joining by Monday and his problem is over now. But Mayank did not join. After one month Mayank again got a call from Mitra informing about him that co. has waived off his three years bond condition. Mayank did not join even after that. 

Case Study Analysis

1. Discuss the ingredients of Hiring process, style of interviewers, organization culture and why this recruitment failed?

Given the way recruitment was being handled at the company and treatment meted out to candidates who would come for interview, this was a disaster waiting to happen. This scenario also spoke of the disarray functioning of the HR of the company and it’s importance in scheme of things in the company. The company did not value the importance of time of Mayank whom it had called for interview. It made him wait for endless hours to meet the interviewer’s. The company that does not value prospective employee before recruitment, that employee should not expect much after joining. 

Also the interview questions asked seemed to be mere formality and were not meant to judge or gauge the skills and abilities of an aspiring candidate. There was no robustness in the hiring process like a candidate has to go through minimum 3 rounds of interview and meet different people so that the company gets a 360 degree perspective of the candidate’s skills and abilities before zeroing in on the final decision.

HR was merely looked upon as a side function to fulfil manpower needs as and when it arises and other statutory and regulatory requirements like payroll. HR dept. also seemed to be under pressure to fulfil manpower needs on urgent basis as the stem of flow of person leaving the company was high. As one of the current employee’s rightly said about the company that working here is good till such time you do not get a better offer or till you do not have any other job. So the company was basically looked upon as an option when there is no other option. It was not the preferred choice for employment.

There does not seem to exist any recruitment policy or hiring process at the company. If at all it is there, it does not seem to be effective or is outdated. There are no laid down criteria for screening of resumes, shortlisting for interview, skills / abilities to look out for when hiring a candidate, rolling out offer, acceptance of offer confirmation, pre-joining and joining formalities. Even the employee bond execution policy was not fixed nor was probation period of management trainee. It looks like that it all depended on the whims & fancies of the manager / reporting authority and the HR dept. was merely a facilitator of the same. HR had no role or say and had to merely do that which the company wanted it to do.

2. Was managements of the company failed in understanding the GEN Y kind of person and failed to meet the challenge, If so how management should have handled the situation?

Yes, the management of the company had failed in understanding the GEN Y person, his needs and aspirations, what the GEN Y person looks out for when joining a company. Firstly the reason why Rahul had put in his resignation needed to be looked into. If it was an issue related to his job profile or reporting authority, that could have been resolved through discussions and an amicable solution worked out. If Rahul was looking for more things to do in his current profile other than merely compiling data, he could have been given more work opportunities to learn and grow. 

Firstly the objective should have been to retain Rahul. Still if he had decided to move on, then an exit interview should have taken place and corrective measures on Rahul’s interview feedback acted upon so as to ensure that the next candidate joining in his place, same mistake does not happen again.  

Here, it is also to be noted that the onus lies of Mr. Bajaj, Rahul’s manager to train and develop him and make him a valuable asset for the company and thus retain him. How Mr. Bajaj engages with his subordinates and motivates them is also important. GEN Y person’s are constantly evaluating opportunities for themselves like whether they get to enjoy the work that they are currently doing, is it providing them enough learning and growth opportunities, is the work opportunity provided to them meeting their individual career goals, etc…They are looking to engage themselves more with the organization by job sharing and rotational assignments. They would not be merely satisfied with one profile. GEN Y looks at option of job rotation to help them diversify their job portfolio and gain experience in various roles.

Thirdly the Recruitment process is to be well defined and should focus on a combination of technical, behavioral and personality aspects of potential candidate before making final decision.

Fourth is to identify back up for relevant position and Cross training as a measure to be executed to ensure continuity in case of attrition as compared to existing scenario of looking for a replacement when one leaves and that there is no guarantee that the replacement may join in time.